Lịch Sử Và Phát Triển Máy Tính Univac

CSIRAC plays the Colonel Bogey march

Australia"s first computer, the CSIRAC, begins operating in 1949. Chief programmer Geoff Hill came from a musical family và as part of preparations for a demonstration of CSIRAC during the first Australian Conference on Automatic Computing Machines, he programmed it khổng lồ play several songs, including Colonel Bogey, a popular regimental march written at the beginning World War I.

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Ferranti Mark I sold

The title of “first commercially available general-purpose computer” probably goes khổng lồ Britain’s Ferranti Mark I for its sale of its first Mark I computer khổng lồ Manchester University. The Mark 1 was a refinement of the experimental Manchester “Baby” & Manchester Mark 1 computers, also at Manchester University. A British government contract spurred its initial development but a change in government led to lớn loss of funding và the second & only other Mark I was sold at a major loss khổng lồ the University of Toronto lớn, where it was re-christened FERUT.


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First Univac 1 delivered lớn US Census Bureau

The Univac 1 is the first commercial computer to attract widespread public attention. Although manufactured by Remington Rand, the machine was often mistakenly referred lớn as “the IBM Univac." Univac computers were used in many different applications but utilities, insurance companies và the US military were major customers. One biblical scholar even used a Univac 1 lớn compile a concordance to the King James version of the Bible. Created by Presper Eckert and John Mauchly -- designers of the earlier ENIAC computer -- the Univac 1 used 5,200 vacuum tubes và weighed 29,000 pounds. Remington Rvà eventually sold 46 Univac 1s at more than $1 million each.


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J. Lyons và Company introduce LEO-1

Modeled after the Cambridge University EDSAC computer, the president of Lyons Tea Co. has the LEO built lớn solve sầu the problem of production scheduling và delivery of cakes to lớn the hundreds of Lyons tea shops around Englvà. After the success of the first LEO, Lyons went inlớn business manufacturing computers khổng lồ meet the growing need for data processing systems in business. The LEO was England’s first commercial computer và was performing useful work before any other commercial computer system in the world.

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Nimrod on display at Festival of Britain

The Festival of Britain was designed as a nationwide display of British Arts, Technology & Culture following the widespread destruction of World War II. As a part of the festivities, computer company Ferranti provided a display for the Festival"s activities in South Kensington (London). John Bennett, an Australian employee living in Britain, suggested building a machine khổng lồ play NIM, a simple game where players take turns removing matches from piles in an attempt to be the last person khổng lồ remove a match. An electromechanical device to lớn play the game had been on display at the 1939 World"s Fair in Thành Phố New York. Engineer Raymond Stuart-Williams turned Bennet"s thiết kế into lớn an actual machine that debuted at the Festival on April 12th, 1951. Ferranti took Nimrod to lớn the Berlin International Show later in 1951, but dismantled it afterwards.


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Squee: The Robot Squirrel

Squee: The Robot Squirrel uses two light sensors and two tương tác switches to hunt for ”nuts” (actually, tennis balls) & drag them to its nest. Squee was described as “75% reliable,” but it worked well only in a very dark room. Squee was conceived by computer pioneer Edmund Berkeley, who earlier wrote the hugely popular book Giant Brains or Machines That Think (1949). The original Squee prototype is in the permanent collection of the Computer History Museum.


The Turing Test

Alan Turing creates a standard chạy thử khổng lồ answer: “Can machines think?” He proposed that if a computer, on the basis of written replies khổng lồ questions, could not be distinguished from a human respondent, then it must be “thinking”.


UNIVAC UNISERVO tape drive

UNIVAC introduces the "UNISERVO" tape drive for the UNIVAC I computer. It was the first tape storage device for a commercial computer, & the relative sầu low cost, portability and unlimited offline capathành phố of magnetic tape made it very popular. UNIVAC tapes were ½" wide, 0.0015" thiông xã, up to lớn 1,500" long, & made of phosphor-bronze with a metallic coating. Weighing about three pounds, each reel could hold 1,440,000 decimal digits and could be read at 100 inches/sec.